Niger, Tenere Desert. Sand dunes within the extinct Caldera of Arakao. This is the largest protected area in Africa, covering over 7.7 million hectares. It includes the volcanic massif of the Air Mountains, a Sahelian island isolated in climate, flora and fauna in the surrounding Saharan desert of Ténéré. It contains an outstanding variety of landscapes, plant species and wild animals. One-sixth of the reserve is a sanctuary for addax. The site was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991.